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5.  Hanya G, Noma N & Agetsuma N (2003) Altitudinal and seasonal variations in the diet of Japanese macaques in Yakushima.  Primates 44: 51-59.

Abstract.  Altitudinal and seasonal variations of diet of Japanese macaques in Yakushima, southwestern Japan, were studied for two years using fecal analysis.  The altitudinal range of fecal samples collected was from 30 m to 1203 m above sea level, and it was divided into three zones: low zone forest (0-399 m), middle zone forest (400-799 m), and high zone forest (800 m-1230 m).  There was a considerable altitudinal and seasonal variation in the macaques' diet.  Seed/fruit and animal matter were eaten more in the lower zones, while more fiber and fungi were consumed in the higher zones.  In all of the zones, they ate seed/fruits the most in autumn (September-November) and the least in spring (March-April).  They ate fibrous food the most in spring and the least in autumn.  Macaques relied on seed/fruits heavily in the lower zone for a longer period than in the higher zones.  Macaques in the high zone forest ate almost no seed/fruit foods from March to May.  Altitudinal variations in availability of seed/fruit foods seem to have influenced the altitudinal variations in diet.  Total basal area of seed/fruit-food trees, species richness of seed/fruit-foods, main seed/fruit-food types available, and annual fleshy fruit production all decreased with increasing altitude.  Both inter-annual variation and annual cyclicity of diet were found in all zones.

Key words: altitude; fecal analysis; diet; Japanese macaque; Yakushima.

<Written by: Goro Hanya (hanya.goro.5z<atmark>>
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<Last update: December 5, 2005>